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Anthropology. Literally, anthropology means 'the study of mankind'. It is usually divided into two quite distinct disciplines: Social (or cultural) anthropology: the study of the wide range of different cultures and social systems found across the planet. It has obvious conceptual overlaps with sociology, although the latter tended to focus on Western societies; social anthropology was initially more concerned with non-Western, so-called 'primitive' societies. (In this context, it is perhaps relevant to note Gandhi's reply when questioned as to what he thought of 'Western civilization': “I think it would be a good idea”). However, these two disciplines of sociology and social anthropology have developed quite different methodologies and theoretical approaches to understanding their subject matter. ETHNOGRAPHY [see 'methods'] is a key method used by anthropologists. Physical anthropology: a biological, evolutionary approach to measuring, classifying and analysing different human groupings (e.g. based on ethnicity, geography, or 'race' – though the latter term is now considered problematic, in perpetuating what has been called 'biological racism').