US psychologist Edward Lee Thorndike (born 1874, Williamsburg, Mass., died 1949, Montrose, NY) whose work on animal behaviour and the learning process led to the theory of connectionism, which states that behavioural responses to specific stimuli are established through a process of trial and error that affects neural connections between the stimuli and the most satisfactory responses.
Thorndike graduated from Wesleyan University in 1895. He began his studies of animal behaviour as a graduate student under the psychologist William James at Harvard University (189597) and continued them under James McKeen Cattell at Columbia University, where he received his Ph.D. (1898) and where he spent most of his career. He first proposed his two behavioural laws, the law of effect and the law of exercise, in his doctoral dissertation, written in 18981901 and published in 1911 as Animal Intelligence. He regarded adaptive changes in animal behaviour as analogous to human learning and suggested that behavioural associations (connections) could be predicted by application of the two laws. The law of effect stated that those behavioural responses that were most closely followed by a satisfactory result were most likely to become established patterns and to occur again in response to the same stimulus. The law of exercise stated that behaviour is more strongly established when the connection of stimulus and response has been more frequently made. Over the years, Thorndike continued to conduct experiments on animal behaviour and in 1932 determined that the second of his laws was not entirely valid in all cases. He also modified the law of effect to state that rewards for appropriate behaviour always substantially strengthened associations, while punishments for inappropriate responses only slightly weakened the association between the stimulus and the wrong response. Thorndike's early work is regarded as the first laboratory study of animal learning. His emphasis on measurement and the quantitative analysis of data, as opposed to merely descriptive accounts of experiments, has been enormously influential in modern psychology, particularly affecting behaviourist experimentation.
While still a graduate student at Columbia, Thorndike began an association with Robert S. Woodworth, with whom he studied transference of learning. In a paper published in 1901, Thorndike and Woodworth found that learning in one area does not facilitate learning in other areas; where specific training in one task seemed to cause improvement in learning another, the improvement could be attributed to common elements in the two exercises, not to overall enhancement of the subject's learning abilities. This finding supported proponents of school curricula that emphasized practical, relevant subject matter and activities.
As professor of educational psychology at Columbia from 1904 to 1940, Thorndike influenced several generations of teachers and, through his encouragement of research on individual differences, learning, and mental measurement, contributed significantly to the development of a more scientifically grounded and efficient type of schooling. An ardent advocate of the transformation of qualitative data into numerical values, he advanced the use of statistics in social science research, chiefly through his handbook, An Introduction to the Theory of Mental and Social Measurements (1904). Other important works in the early part of his career were The Principles of Teaching Based on Psychology (1906), Education: A First Book (1912), and Educational Psychology, (3 volsumes, 191314; 2nd ed., 1921). These books were responsible for many of the earliest applications of psychology to classroom instruction in arithmetic, algebra, reading, writing, and language and also did much to expose the deficiencies and inequalities in the US educational system of the time.
When his investigations in the 1920s of adult learning revealed that continued learning ability was determined by inborn personal factors rather than age, adult education was revitalized. Throughout his career, Thorndike published a prodigious number of books and articles; among later works of note were The Psychology of Wants, Interests, and Attitudes (1935) and Human Nature and the Social Order (1940).